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Uncommon photographs present the early years of NASA’s area shuttle period

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Written by Jacopo Prisco, CNN

Preserving you within the know, Culture Queue is an ongoing sequence of suggestions for well timed books to learn, movies to look at and podcasts and music to take heed to.
NASA’s first space shuttle was meant to be named Structure — a nod to america Bicentennial that 12 months. However a write-in marketing campaign by “Star Trek” followers prompted President Gerald Ford to alter his thoughts.

As a substitute, the orbiter was known as Enterprise, just like the TV present’s starship. That is why members of the “Star Trek” forged and crew, together with Nichelle Nichols, George Takei and Gene Roddenberry, could possibly be seen among the many crowd on the shuttle’s September 1976 unveiling.

They will also be seen, sporting quintessentially Seventies sartorial type, in one of many 450 beforehand unpublished and infrequently seen photographs featured in College of Florida Press’ new book, “Picturing the Area Shuttle: The Early Years.” The publication chronicles the shuttle program from 1965 till 1982, ending only a 12 months into the spacecraft’s operational life.
Former astronaut Deke Slayton, manager of the shuttle's Orbital Flight Test (OFT) program describes three upcoming "captive-active" phase flights at news conference in April 1977, as Johnson Space Center Public Affairs Officer Milt Reim looks on in the background.

Former astronaut Deke Slayton, supervisor of the shuttle’s Orbital Flight Check (OFT) program describes three upcoming “captive-active” section flights at information convention in April 1977, as Johnson Area Heart Public Affairs Officer Milt Reim appears to be like on within the background. Credit score: NASA

“Many of the shuttle books which can be obtainable attempt to do an excessive amount of and canopy the whole program,” stated co-author John Bisney in a cellphone interview. “And when you could have 135 flights over 30 years, that is troublesome to condense into one e book.”

Bisney’s e book, which he co-authored with J.L. Pickering, as a substitute affords a novel view into the early growth of the shuttle, the world’s first reusable spacecraft, with a wealth of outlandish sketches and drawings of other designs — a few of which nonetheless look remarkably futuristic.

“Among the early ideas concerned having the booster rocket additionally come again and land like an airplane, mechanically,” Bisney stated. “Sadly, it turned out to be fairly difficult.”

The Columbia in 1979, ready to fly piggyback on a Boeing 747, formerly owned by American Airlines (hence the livery). Some of its tiles were damaged, as visible, during a previous test flight on the back of the plane.

The Columbia in 1979, able to fly piggyback on a Boeing 747, previously owned by American Airways (therefore the livery). A few of its tiles have been broken, as seen, throughout a earlier take a look at flight on the again of the airplane. Credit score: NASA

As a substitute, the booster rockets splashed into the ocean after detaching from the shuttle, to be recovered and refurbished. A contemporary rocket like SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy has booster rockets that may autonomously descend again to Earth and land.

The shuttle — formally known as STS, or Area Transportation System — first flew into area on April 12, 1981, with the excellence of getting not been examined with an unmanned launch first. Astronauts John Younger and Bob Crippen flew the orbiter, Columbia, for 54 hours earlier than touchdown safely again on Earth. The e book’s timeline ends after the fourth area shuttle mission, a take a look at flight that paved the way in which for operational missions.

Lots of the photographs come from Pickering’s private archive, one of many world’s largest non-public collections of manned spaceflight photographs.

“I give (Pickering) all of the credit score, and sure, he did have lots to kind by,” Bisney stated. “However considered one of our emblems is to focus on uncommon, not often seen or unpublished photographs. For those who go to the library and pull a e book on the shuttle off the shelf, you usually see the identical few hundred footage in each e book. And that is comprehensible, as a result of they’re nice footage. However there’s much more to indicate you,”

STS-2 on the evening of November 11, 1981. It was the last time the shuttle would launch with a white external tank; the paint was removed for later flights to avoid unnecessary weight.

STS-2 on the night of November 11, 1981. It was the final time the shuttle would launch with a white exterior tank; the paint was eliminated for later flights to keep away from pointless weight. Credit score: NASA

The sense of anticipation surrounding the shuttle program, which carried US astronauts in area for the primary time because the Apollo-Soyuz Check Undertaking in 1975, is palpable in most of the photographs. The STS was retired in 2011, with 5 orbiters constructed (solely 4 of which flew into area) and two misplaced to accidents, in 1986 and 2003, with a collective lack of 14 lives.

“When you could have 135 missions it is horrible to lose two of them. However spaceflight is dangerous enterprise,” Bisney stated. “I do not assume it is ever going to be fairly as routine as some folks assume it could be.”

Associated video: Why NASA’s Area Shuttle was so revolutionary

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On Jan. 28, 1986, the area shuttle Challenger broke aside 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven folks onboard. Following the catastrophe, NASA grounded the shuttle for 2 and a half years whereas the company tried to emerge from one of many worst durations of its historical past. The explosion was brought on by the notorious O-ring, a rubber seal that helped hold the rocket boosters and the exterior gas tank in place. As soon as the ring failed, as a consequence of freezing climate the evening earlier than launch, the exterior tank exploded. This design flaw, and NASA’s failure to handle it, are rigorously dissected on this highly effective, four-part Netflix documentary, with unprecedented entry to the households of these concerned.

This full-length documentary is free to view on NASA’s official YouTube channel, and is narrated by none aside from William Shatner — the unique Captain Kirk from “Star Trek.” It affords a complete view of the expertise and the mission setup of the shuttle program, with NASA personnel providing first-person factors of view.

Learn: “Wings in Orbit” (2011)

NASA’s personal complete historical past of the shuttle program is free to learn on-line or obtain. With a concentrate on the science and the engineering, it leverages the company’s huge human sources and unparalleled picture library.

Watch: “For All Mankind” (2019)

This Chilly Conflict historical past area drama from Apple TV+ imagines a hypothetical timeline wherein the Soviets landed on the Moon first. The second season incorporates a fictional spacecraft known as Pathfinder (referencing an early mockup mannequin of the shuttle, in addition to a later Mars mission of the identical identify), with nuclear engines and a sleeker, extra menacing look. It’s geared up with weapons and could be seen fortunately trekking all the way in which to the moon — an impossibility for the true shuttles, which have been by no means designed to depart Earth’s orbit.

The final word espresso desk e book on NASA historical past, this quantity incorporates a huge chapter on the area shuttle program, with beautiful large-format images accompanied by essays written by NASA commanders and mission specialists. The remainder of the e book covers all the foremost milestones from NASA’s first 60 years of operation (1958 to 2018), with over 400 photographs in complete.

Prime picture: Robert Crippen and John Younger aboard the Columbia in 1980.

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Rich people are going to space. So is product placement.

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On Wednesday night, SpaceX’s Inspiration4 mission launched the first all-civilian crew into Earth’s orbit. With the help of companies including Sam Adams and Martin Guitars, the three-day trip to space aims to raise $200 million for St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in what amounts to a charitable spin on the emerging market for very expensive joyrides to space. The fact that the mission is filled with branding opportunities isn’t surprising, given that private space launches are already big streaming and media events.

Jared Isaacman, the billionaire founder and CEO of the e-commerce company Ship4Payments, is funding the much-publicized trip. The crew also includes the mission’s pilot, Sian Proctor, a geology professor; Hayley Arceneaux, a St. Jude physician assistant; and Chris Sembroski, an engineer who won his ticket in a raffle. None of the passengers are professional astronauts, and they’ll be relying on SpaceX’s autonomous Crew Dragon capsule to ensure the mission goes smoothly.

The Inspiration4 capsule took off a little after 8 pm ET and was carried into space by SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket before entering Earth’s orbit around 80 miles beyond the International Space Station (ISS). After about three days of zero gravity and magnificent views — not to mention activities such as a ukulele performance and a video call to a St. Jude patient — the crew will return to Earth, and in late September, Netflix will release a feature-length finale of its five-part reality TV series about the mission. (The first four episodes of the show are already available to watch, and Netflix is streaming the launch on its YouTube page.)

The mission also involves a motley payload of gear and collectibles, including merchandise that will be put up for sale in a charity auction after the crew returns to Earth. Those items range from space-themed watches made by IWC to stuffed rocket-ship toys based on characters from the animated Netflix series Space Racers. There’s a $2,000 Martin Guitar ukulele that Sembroski will play on board.

The Inspiration4’s official beer maker, Sam Adams, also arranged for 66 pounds of hops to go to space and will brew beer with them once the mission lands (the beer will be available for purchase later in the fall). Perhaps the weirdest of the items is a slew of non-fungible tokens stored on iPhones, including an NFT recording of a Kings of Leon song that’s set to become the first music NFT ever played in space. Bidding for these items starts on Thursday, and the auctions will end in November.

The watchmaker IWC designed Inspiration4-themed watches that crew members will wear during their time in space.
Courtesy of Inspiration4

While selling stuff that’s been to space isn’t new, it’s about to become a lot more common. NASA, a government agency subject to congressional oversight, has traditionally restricted the commercialization of space missions. But as the number of non-NASA space flights has grown, so have opportunities for space-bound merchandise and product placement. Now, because commercial space companies don’t necessarily operate under NASA’s strict restrictions, there’s a race to seize new marketing opportunities in the cosmos: namely, sending products to space before selling them back on Earth.

A brief history of space merchandise

NASA itself doesn’t typically sell stuff that’s been to space, but items from NASA missions have found their way to the market in the past. Meanwhile, astronauts are civil servants and are not legally allowed to personally profit from their positions until they retire from government work, limiting when they can sell any personal items they’re allowed to bring on their missions. Other valuable items that have been to space on NASA missions are typically offered to museums or, on rare occasions, sold off by the government.

Some of the most remarkable items that have made the trip to space and back before being sold to the public have come from astronauts from the Gemini, Apollo, and Mercury programs, some of whom happened to save equipment from their missions.

Regulations surrounding what astronauts could keep from these initial missions amounted to verbal agreements at the time, which has led to some controversy over who had the right to the artifacts. But in 2012, President Barack Obama signed a bill into law confirming that these astronauts indeed had ownership rights over many of these mementos. Now, these items sell for hefty sums: One bag from the Apollo 11 mission that was used by Neil Armstrong to carry samples of moon dust sold at Sotheby’s in 2017 for $1.8 million.

NASA also has strict rules against advertising or endorsing products, and it makes very little off of merchandise with branding or iconography. While the space agency’s various logos have appeared on everything from Vans shoes to Forever 21 tops, the images are generally in the public domain, which means they’re free for anyone to use.

“People have seen what the historic flown items have sold for and understand that there’s a market for that material, and that those things are valuable and collectible,” said Cassandra Hatton, Sotheby’s global head of science and pop culture, who works with astronauts on memento auctions. “The reason why they were flown originally — there was no commercial purpose behind it. Their value really is historic.”

NASA has started to welcome some commercial deals in recent years. In 2019, the space agency formally announced that it would allow 90 hours of crew time annually for astronauts to pursue marketing activities commissioned by private companies. For instance, Estée Lauder last year paid astronauts to take pictures of a face serum in zero gravity on the ISS. The ISS National Lab has also partnered with Adidas to test its soccer ball on the station, though it’s unclear how useful it is to test a soccer ball in space.

All this means that product placement and promotional stunts in space have historically happened without the US space administration. They have, though, had help from Roscosmos, the Russian equivalent of NASA. Over the past several decades, Russia’s space agency has helped advertise milk, ramen, Pepsi, and even Pizza Hut personal pizzas. And if Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey is any indication of what’s to come — the movie featured a Hilton hotel on the moon — the trend of private companies using space as a marketing opportunity will only grow.

“This exploration of space is not just about exploring the scientific or technical frontiers,” explains Scott Pace, director of George Washington University’s Space Policy Institute. “It’s also exploring about, you know, where can the economy go? Where do we expand economic activities beyond the Earth?”

Commercial space travel means space gear will become more common

Three private space companies have already begun the process of launching very wealthy civilians into space: Jeff Bezos’s Blue Origin, Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic, and now Elon Musk’s SpaceX. All three companies have not only sold their own merchandise but have also cleared the way for space-themed branding and marketing opportunities.

Virgin Galactic, for example, partnered with Under Armour to sell branded sportswear, including the “spacewear” that Virgin Galactic customers wear on their flights and take home afterward. The space tourism company also collaborated with Land Rover to create an Astronaut Edition Range Rover that’s only available to people who have purchased tickets on a Virgin Galactic flight. The SUV includes a space plane-shaped puddle light, as well as cup holders made out of a piece of the landing skid from one of Virgin Galactic’s first flights.

Blue Origin similarly used the launch of its first crewed mission, which included Bezos himself, to debut the first electric vehicle from Rivian (one of the automaker’s biggest investors is Amazon, where Bezos used to work).

A few of these kinds of marketing opportunities, however, happen more serendipitously. After Bezos threw Skittles across the space capsule on his Blue Origin flight in July, for instance, Skittles quickly announced it would release a limited-time candy pack called “Zero-G Skittles.” The candymaker told Recode the move was not coordinated ahead of time.

Though the trend in space-based branding and marketing campaigns seems to showcase the worst qualities of American capitalism, some argue there’s a greater good in it all. Most people can’t afford a ticket to space, as prices for space tourism missions are still in the hundreds of thousands of dollars. But merchandise and collectibles from these commercial missions mean private space firms can still sell consumers the feeling that they’re at least part of this moment in space history for a lot less money.

“By flying our brands, we get to fly along with them,” Robert Pearlman, a space historian who runs the space collectibles website collectSpace, told Recode. “We get to see a little bit more of ourselves in how spaceflight unfolds and say, ‘Yeah, I may not be able to afford a flight to space, but I eat Skittles.’”

Sponsored content from celebrities in space might not be far away, either. Plenty of celebrities have already reserved tickets on Virgin Galactic, and Virgin Galactic already has plans to bring a TikTok science influencer on one of its upcoming flights. Meanwhile, the private spaceflight company Axiom Space, which has contracted several flights from SpaceX, is offering a space-themed “content innovation platform” to help companies do product demonstrations and create ads in space. More space-based reality TV is in the works, too, including competition shows that aim to send civilians into space. The Discovery Channel is developing one called Who Wants to Be an Astronaut, and earlier this year, NASA signed off on a show called Space Hero that will send a lucky contestant to the ISS.

While commercial space travel feel exciting right now for many, the novelty of billionaires and ordinary people traveling to space for fun might not last forever. But keenly aware of the historic nature of its flight, the Inspiration4 mission is trying to capitalize on the enthusiasm — for charity — that comes with such an event. We’ll see just how much people will be willing to pay for a piece of that history when the mission lands.

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